Mash 2017 launched

first_imgIn high spirits, scores of people were present for the Mashramani 2017 launching ceremony on Main Street, Georgetown hosted by the Education Ministry’s Department of Culture, Youth and Sport, on Thursday evening.The theme for Mash 2017 was also revealed: “Celebrate with Liberty, Dignity and Greater Unity”.The audience enjoyed the entertaining performances of the Amerindian Dance Troupe, Nitryageet Dancers, the National School of Dance, singing by the winner of the Junior Calypso Monarch, Chutney singer Bunty Singh and Calypsonian Bill Rogers.Additionally, the folk songs by the National Steel Orchestra proved quite appealing to many.Minister within the Education Ministry, Nicolette Henry expressed appreciation of the launch, as she emphasised on the importance of unity among persons of different races and religions, in Guyana.She further encouraged persons to participate in Mashramani 2017, promising that “it will not only be colourful but inclusive”.last_img read more

Officials catching up with renegade taxis

first_imgAn estimated 2,300 bandit cabs operate in the San Fernando Valley and throughout Los Angeles – most in heavily immigrant communities. Regulated taxis pay $90 a month in franchise fees, which means the city loses about $2 million in revenue annually from the unlicensed cabs. For years, bandit taxis have played a game of cat-and-mouse with authorities, remaining out of the reach of the city DOT, which lacks the authority to impound the cars, and the LAPD, which lacks enough officers to keep abreast of the crimes. But that is changing. Since November, the city’s 2,300 registered cabs have been paying a 20 cent surcharge on each ride toward a yearlong program to beef up enforcement – $750,000 for the LAPD and $60,000 for DOT inspectors for overtime. Since December, authorities have arrested about 200 suspected bandit cabbies. That’s roughly half the total number of arrests made during all of 2003. Licensed elsewhere Some bandit drivers do have permits to operate in other cities, officials say, but sneak into Los Angeles to earn extra money, especially in West Los Angeles, where a hefty share of cab business awaits. “It all happens before your eyes,” said Lt. Charles Carlton, who works with the Los Angeles Police Department’s Emergency Operations Division. “It’s a subculture in unmarked cars.” But most lack any permits and drive cars that are unmarked, uninsured and not subject to safety inspections. “Most of them are unlicensed and uninsured and a lot of times they are trying to get from Point A to Point B and are not necessarily following the rules of the road,” said Sgt. Robert Calderon, who works vice in the LAPD’s Rampart Division. “They could collide with you and take off.” While many passengers ride bandit taxis to the supermarket or on other errands, they are also used by criminals to deliver drugs, extort money and commit robberies, Calderon said. “You just never know what their intentions could be in the end,” Calderon said. “Some of them are just earning a living, and some are taking advantage of the situation.” It’s unknown exactly how many times the cars are used for crimes, since they operate in a behind-the-scenes world and therefore do not report problems to police. Some drivers are moms and dads looking to earn extra cash. But many work for businesses run out of apartments or the back of shops that take calls and then radio the information to drivers, who earn about $100 a day, said Humberto Najera, who coordinates the LAPD’s bandit cab enforcement effort. Najera compares the risks of riding with the drivers who’ve never been through a screening process to the dangers of hitchhiking. “You’re just calling a random number and hope that person will do what he or she is supposed to do,” Najera said. “You run the risk that you might get robbed or victimized.” Arrested, released Today, most bandit taxicab drivers in Los Angeles are arrested and released with misdemeanor citations ordering them to court, where they can get $250 fines or community service. Those without driver’s licenses or registration are brought to jail and see their cars impounded for 30 days, costing up to $1,100 to get back. Since December, police have impounded 95 cars involved in the bandit taxi rides. “That’s a big penalty and some cars may not be worth that,” said the LAPD’s Carlton. “But the thing is, they don’t have that money. That’s why they do this.” Although police can impound cars used in crimes, they cannot hold those used in the bandit taxi business for 30 days and are working with the courts to change that in order to put a dent in the business. Earlier this month, however, City Councilwoman Wendy Gruel introduced a motion that would authorize the DOT to impound the cars for 30 days. However, as individual drivers get arrested, the larger illegal businesses supporting them remain largely untouched by police who cannot deeply investigate them the way the system works now, on a part-time and overtime basis, Carlton said. But the crimes may be shifted to another division in the LAPD, where they could receive more attention, Carlton said. New York’s system After years of a never-ending problem with illegal taxi operations in New York City, police during arrests also handed out information to educate the drivers about the right way to get drivers’ licenses and car insurance. Now enforcement falls under the city’s Taxi and Limousine Commission. Working undercover, the officers issued 1,176 tickets and seized 151 cars last year in a program called Operation Street Hail. In New York City, cars can be impounded for illegal for-hire activity if they do not hold the right registration and license. Drivers get summoned to court and can see fines from $350 to $1,500, said Allan Fromberg, deputy commissioner of public affairs for the commission. Fromberg said the illegal taxis in New York City usually operate around transportation hubs, such as where subways end, and often in communities underserved by public transportation. In Miami, bandit taxi drivers see $1,000 fines for first-time offenses and $2,000 the next time, said Joe Mora, division director of passenger transportation for Miami-Dade County. Although the illegal cabs operate throughout the city, Mora said they often work in immigrant communities and in areas where many elderly live and are unable to drive. The county’s 26 code enforcement officers have the authority to impound the cars and release them, which can cost the drivers an additional $1,000. “When you impound the vehicle or hit them financially, that’s the deterrent,” Mora said. (818) 713-3746 160Want local news?Sign up for the Localist and stay informed Something went wrong. Please try again.subscribeCongratulations! You’re all set! With the driver’s-side door still open, the motorist peeled out as police careened around the corner, lights flashing, sirens wailing. But he didn’t get far, becoming the 11th arrest of the afternoon in a recent LAPD sting against bandit taxis – unmarked, uninspected and uninsured cars, frequently with an unlicensed driver at the wheel. Although the bandit cabs appear legitimate, unsuspecting passengers have no idea of the hazards they face when they step inside. “Consumers don’t know what they’re getting because no one has done a background check on the driver,” said Tom Drischler, taxicab administrator for the city Department of Transportation. “They can charge whatever rates they want, and no one can hold them accountable for overcharging for a service.” last_img read more


first_imgA Gaoth Dobhair man has revealed how his late father worked at Bletchley Park – Britain’s World War decoding centre.Details of the fascinating life of John James Doherty are contained in a letter in today’s Irish Times.The following is the letter: Not Alone at Bletchley ParkSir, – Alan Turing, the computer pioneer, was not alone at Bletchley Park (Britain’s top secret second World War decoding centre) in being of Irish descent (Phil Maguire, An Irishman’s Diary, June 23rd).My late father, John James Doherty, attended Knockastolar National School, St Eunan’s College Letterkenny and Birmingham University before spending the war at Bletchley Park as a cryptanalyst and translator.While his languages – German, French, Italian, Spanish, Polish, Russian, Latin, Greek – were fully utilised, he never disclosed whether his knowledge of Irish helped in Hitler’s defeat. – Yours, etc, Dr JOHN DOHERTY,Cnoc an Stollaire,Gaoth Dobhair, Co Donegal. DONEGAL MAN REVEALS HIS FATHER’S SECRET LIFE AT WORLD WAR DECODING CENTRE was last modified: June 27th, 2012 by StephenShare this:Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window)Click to share on Reddit (Opens in new window)Click to share on Pocket (Opens in new window)Click to share on Telegram (Opens in new window)Click to share on WhatsApp (Opens in new window)Click to share on Skype (Opens in new window)Click to print (Opens in new window) Tags:Bletchley Parkdecoding centreJohn James Dohertylast_img read more

EU to monitor Gaza-Egypt border crossing

first_imgRAFAH CROSSING, Gaza Strip – The European Union agreed Monday to monitor a Gaza-Egypt border crossing that serves as the main gate to the world for Palestinians in the coastal strip. The deployment of foreign inspectors at the Rafah terminal is a key element of an emerging Israeli-Palestinian deal on new border arrangements following Israel’s pullout from the Gaza Strip in September. EU foreign ministers agreed at a meeting in Brussels, Belgium, to “assume the third-party responsibility” for monitoring the border crossing, Javier Solana, the EU’s security affairs chief, told reporters as a delegation from the bloc toured the border area. Israel closed Rafah just before the withdrawal, and the terminal has opened only sporadically since then to allow passage of hardship cases. AD Quality Auto 360p 720p 1080p Top articles1/5READ MOREWalnut’s Malik Khouzam voted Southern California Boys Athlete of the Week Solana did not give details of the conditions under which the EU monitors would supervise border traffic, saying Israeli and Palestinian negotiators were discussing the matter Monday. The Palestinians hope to reach agreement by Nov. 15. The Palestinians want the Europeans to serve as advisers, while Israel wants the foreigners to be in charge, with the authority to carry out arrests or confiscate luggage, if necessary. Israel is concerned about an influx of weapons and militants. 160Want local news?Sign up for the Localist and stay informed Something went wrong. Please try again.subscribeCongratulations! You’re all set!last_img read more

Loggers ease their way past Granite Bay

first_imgDefense paved the way for the Loggers in their first-round Norcal tournament win over visiting Granite Bay Wednesday night. The No. 2 seed Eureka High girls (25-6) yielded just nine points to No. 15 seed Granite Bay (20-10) in the first quarter en route to a 63-43 victory. “It was a sloppy win,” said Eureka head coach Clifford Napoleon. “We had to make a lot of adjustments, but we got it done.”Eureka’s starting point guard Dorshaela Wesson was out due to injury. Makaila Napoleon, the Loggers …last_img read more

Matt Chapman makes A’s spring debut as DH, talks when he might play defense

first_imgChapman worked a full count in his first … MESA, Ariz. — Matt Chapman is not back to where he wants to be but the A’s star took a big step in the right direction Wednesday.The Gold Glove third baseman went 0 for 2 with a walk in his Cactus League debut as the designated hitter in a 5-3 loss to the Los Angeles Dodgers.Here’s the video you all crave: Matt Chapman drawing a walk in his second spring AB.— Martín Gallegos (@MartinJGallegos) February 27, 2019last_img read more

South Africa’s HIV rate stabilising

first_img11 December 2012 South Africa’s HIV prevalence rate has stabilised over the past six years, according to the government’s latest survey of pregnant women, while the rate of new infections has continued to drop, indicating that the country’s prevention efforts are beginning to take effect. According to the 2011 National Antenatal Sentinel HIV Prevalence Survey, released on Monday by Health Minister Aaron Motsoaledi, 29.5% of pregnant women attending state clinics in 2011 were HIV-positive. The survey estimated that about 5.6-million people living in South Africa were HIV-positive in 2011.Rate of new infections down While the figure of 29.5% has remained constant over the last six years – it stood at 29.4% in 2007 – the rate of new infections in the country, represented by the prevalence rate among 15- to 19-year-olds, continued to drop, from 14% in 2010 to 12.7% in 2011. The HIV prevalence rate among 15- to 24-year-olds also dropped, from 21.8% in 2010 to 20.5% in 2011. However, HIV prevalence among women aged between 30 and 34 remained the highest, increasing from 41.5% in 2009 to 42.2% in 2011. Among 35- to 39-year-olds, the prevalence rate increased from 35.4% in 2009 to 39.4% in 2011. Explaining the higher prevalence among older women, Motsoaledi said individuals in these age groups had become infected earlier in their lives, and were now moving into a higher age group, pushing up the prevalence rates. “The good news is that we have broken down the upward movement in the 15-19 years group, meaning that prevention is starting to work,” Motsoaledi said.Variations among provinces Among the provinces, KwaZulu-Natal, the province with the highest HIV prevalence, recorded a notable decrease between 2010 and 2011, from 39.5% to 37.4%. Gauteng also recorded a decrease over the same period, from 30.4% to 28.7%. However, Mpumalanga (from 35.1% to 36.7%), the Free State (from 30.6% to 32.5%), North West (from 29.6% to 30.2%), and Limpopo (from 21.4% to 22.1%) all showed increases. The Eastern Cape had a prevalence rate of 29.3% in 2011, while the Northern Cape (17%) and Western Cape (18.2%) were the only provinces with rates below 20%. Motsoaledi said the increase in the Gert Sibande District in Mpumalanga was not surprising but very worrying, as 40% of the country’s energy supply came from there. “[Gert Sibande] needs a massive circumcision campaign, which they have not launched,” he said, adding that the situation needed to be looked into. Motsoaledi attributed the decline in KwaZulu-Natal to the hard work of the provincial branch of the National Aids Council, and the success of the government’s HIV Counselling and Testing and circumcision campaigns. SAinfo reporter and read more

Albie Sachs awarded prestigious Tang Prize

first_imgBorn in Johannesburg in 1935, Justice Sachs played an instrumental role in the democratisation of South Africa. He was key to negotiations in drawing up a new constitution to create a non-racial state that respects the rule of law. (Image: Albie Sachs)• Tang Prize Foundation+886-2-87725188tang-prize@tang-prize.orgMelissa Jane CookAsia’s highest accolade was bestowed on Justice Albie Sachs for “his understanding of the rule of law in which the dignity of all persons is respected and the strengths and values of all communities are embraced” and for “his efforts in the realisation of the rule of law”.Justice Sachs received the inaugural Tang Prize in Rule of Law from the Tang Prize Foundation in Taipei City, Taiwan, on 21 June. The prize is considered Asia’s version of the Nobel. The judge, a former justice of the Constitutional Court of South Africa, won for his significant contributions to human rights and justice around the world.Born in Johannesburg in 1935, Justice Sachs played an instrumental role in the democratisation of South Africa. He was key to negotiations in drawing up a new constitution to create a non-racial state that respects the rule of law. In helping to design the Bill of Rights for South Africa, he argued for the establishment of “a system that guarantees achievable rights to all, rather than one that embodies the victory of one side over the other”.A lawyer and human rights activist, he spent his life fighting apartheid. In retaliation, South African security agents planted a bomb in his car in 1988 that blew off his right arm and blinded him in one eye. This story is recounted in his autobiography The Soft Vengeance of a Freedom Fighter. Following the unbanning of anti-apartheid parties and the end of apartheid, he helped to write the country’s new Constitution, and in 1994 he was appointed by Nelson Mandela to serve as a justice of the Constitutional Court. He held this position until 2009.In his time at the Constitutional Court, the highest court in the land, Justice Sachs assisted in authoring many of the court’s most important decisions and in building its reputation as one of the most important sources of transformative human rights jurisprudence in the world. In terms of the rule of law, the Constitutional Court has been noteworthy for its willingness to rule against the government.South Africa’s Bill of Rights is regarded as one of the most progressive constitutional documents in the world. Listed are not only traditional civil rights such as the freedom of expression and the right to assemble, but also the rights to housing, education, health care, food, water and social security.During Justice Sachs’ tenure as a judge, the Constitutional Court abolished the death penalty and overturned anti-homosexuality laws. In the landmark Minister of Home Affairs v Fourie case in 2005, he authored the court’s decision that legalised same sex marriage, making South Africa the fifth country to recognise such unions.He has honorary doctorates from over a dozen universities, including Princeton, Cambridge and the University of Edinburgh. He is also the author of several books, including Justice in South Africa (1974), Sexism and the Law (1979), and The Strange Alchemy of Life and Law (2009). His writings and lectures have had a great influence on scholars and lawyers around the world.The 79-year-old, who began practising law when he was 21, often defended people charged under the apartheid regime; as a result, he was arrested and tortured. In 1966, he went into exile in England; 11 years later he moved to Mozambique to help build a new legal system for the recently liberated African country. With a PhD in law from the University of Sussex, in the United Kingdom, he is now a visiting professor of law and the Gruber Global Constitutionalism Fellow at Yale Law School, in the United States.The Tang Prize brings with it a cash prize of 40-million new Taiwan dollars ($1.33-million and R14.13-million) and a research grant of up to 10-million new Taiwan dollars to be used within five years, as well as a medal and a certificate.Listen to Albie Sachs hereThe Tang PrizeNamed after China’s Tang Dynasty (AD 618-907), the Asian prize was founded by Taiwanese billionaire Samuel Yin in 2012 with a donation of $3 billion new Taiwan dollars. It honours leaders in four fields: sustainable development, biopharmaceutical science, rule of law, and sinology, the study of Chinese language, history, customs, and politics.The Rule of Law Prize is awarded to individuals or institutions that have made significant contributions to the rule of law, reflected not only in the achievement of the candidates in the advancement of legal theory or practice, but also in the realisation of the rule of law in contemporary societies through the influences or inspiration of the work of the candidates.Justice Sachs “stands out as one of the most influential contemporary advocates for the rule of law”, according to the Tang Prize Foundation. “His views, backed up by unyielding choices of integration over differences and inclusiveness while preserving diversity, offer significant inspiration for societies dealing with issues of division, reconciliation, and the rule of law.”last_img read more

For Microsoft, Windows Phone Is Already Plan B

first_imgRole of Mobile App Analytics In-App Engagement As you can see, Android is the runaway leader in the smartphone operating system sector, with 69.7% of global market share. Apple’s iOS is second at 20.9%.Speaking at the Goldman Sachs Technology and Internet Conference this morning, Microsoft CFO Peter Klein affirmed that the company is still running full tilt with its current strategy. Asked on stage about a “Plan B” for Microsoft’s mobile and PC strategy, Klein implied there wasn’t one, though without denying it explicitly.“It’s less ‘Plan B’ than how you execute on the current plan,” Klein said according to Reuters.This Is Plan BIt’s easy to forget, but for Microsoft, Windows Phone already is Plan B. Not that long ago, the company’s earlier mobile operating system — Windows Mobile CE — held more than 10% of the smartphone market several years ago. Then Microsoft decided to scrap Windows Mobile and its aging code base to build Windows Phone 7. Incredibly, Microsoft then completely borked Windows Phone 7 when it released Windows Phone 8. Apps that work for the earlier version have to be completely rebuilt for the newer one. From a technological perspective, this made sense. When Microsoft finally released Windows 8 (and Windows RT) in the fall of 2012, its aim was to standardize user interfaces across PCs, tablets and smartphones — theoretically making them all easier to use and for developers to build apps on.But from a development and marketing standpoint, the decision to fragment its brand new mobile operating system bordered on lunacy. Many users who bought Windows Phone 7 smartphones felt betrayed when they learned their devices wouldn’t be upgraded to Windows Phone 8 and that their existing apps wouldn’t work on new phones. It didn’t help that Nokia had rolled out a Windows Phone 7 campaign declaring that “the smartphone beta test is over.”Microsoft really can’t afford to do that again. Fortunately, it’s got about three years to stabilize in the market and let users get comfortable with its radically new — but more consistent — Metro-style interface across mobile devices and PCs.That’s because Microsoft’s normal development tends to run in three-year cycles. Windows 8 came three years after Windows 7, which came roughly three years after Windows Vista. Microsoft will certainly issue updates to Windows Phone in the process, but it can’t — and shouldn’t even if it could — fundamentally alter its OS approach in that time frame.In three years we’ll know if Windows Phone 8 has gained any traction in the market and if Microsoft’s bets have paid off in the tablet and PCs sectors. Microsoft has plenty of money to run through a couple of terrible years. But if there’s not more significant movement by 2016, we can pretty much start the Death Watch in Redmond. So of course there’s no Plan B (or, more accurately, Plan C). Microsoft has painted itself into a corner, and now has to wait for the floor to dry.The Same Old StrategyBasically, then, Klein is right. All Redmond can do is execute the current plan. Which is to get as many manufacturers on the Windows Phone train as possible in order to produce a lineup of smartphones that’s available around the world on multiple carriers and in a variety of sizes, features and prices. It needs to “out-Samsung” Samsung and Android at the global distribution game — and drag Nokia along with it.That will also entail throwing hundreds of millions, perhaps billions, of dollars into marketing and advertising. This is the same strategy that Microsoft used with its Xbox gaming console, to great success. Expect to see a lot more “Smoked By Windows Phone” types of campaigns, more Windows Phones seeded to “enthusiastic” mommy bloggers and more press outreach. For Microsoft, throwing dollars down the marketing hole is its only chance to set itself up as a real rival to Android and Apple.Correction: A previous version of this article stated the Lumia 920 was released close to a year ago. It has been corrected to state the Lumia 900, released to AT&T in early April 2012.  Tags:#Microsoft#Windows Phone 8 Related Posts Microsoft is all-in on mobile with Windows Phone. Which is good, because it really doesn’t have much of a choice.The Windows Phone mobile operating system has been on the market for three years. It’s been a year and a half since Nokia released its first Lumia device running the OS and nearly a year since the manufacturer made its first big foray into the United States with the Lumia 900. To what effect?A whopping 3% of market share in the fourth quarter, that’s what. Granted, Microsoft has doubled its share since the same period in 2011 — but it’s not exactly the exponential growth Redmond was probably hoping for. What it Takes to Build a Highly Secure FinTech … The Rise and Rise of Mobile Payment Technology Why IoT Apps are Eating Device Interfaces dan rowinskilast_img read more

Infant burials could help solve the mystery of who settled the New World

first_imgFive years ago, Ben Potter made a dramatic discovery: the partially burned remains of a cremated 3-year-old child, left to rest in a hearth at Upward Sun River, one of the oldest settlements in Alaska. But the University of Alaska, Fairbanks, archaeologist never expected what waited underneath the hearth. More recent excavations have yielded two well-preserved burials, of an infant who likely lived for about 12 weeks and a fetus who died shortly before birth. The discovery provides a window into daily life and burial practices at the 11,500-year-old site, and an unprecedented opportunity to analyze the DNA of some of the Americas’ earliest inhabitants.Upward Sun River, near the Tanama River in central Alaska, is one of the most important archaeological sites discovered in the Beringia region of the Arctic in the last 25 years, says John Hoffecker, an archaeologist at the University of Colorado, Boulder, who wasn’t involved with the research. Most Paleoindian sites found in Alaska are short-term hunting camps, which fit with a long-standing vision of the region’s earliest settlers as nomadic big-game hunters who crossed the Bering land bridge about 14,000 years ago in pursuit of prey like woolly mammoths and elk. Upward Sun River, in contrast, shows signs of longer term occupation, including the remains of the earliest known residential structures in Alaska. The hearth over the two buried bodies contains traces of salmon and ground squirrels, indicating that the occupants did not solely depend on bringing down large mammals, Potter and colleagues report online today in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. This evidence of a wider variety of food sources is “causing us to reevaluate what some of the subsistence [behaviors] would have been like in these early sites,” says Greg Hare, an archaeologist with the Government of Yukon in Whitehorse, Canada.The burials, too, make the site unique in Alaska. The two skeletons were carefully arranged in the same pit and are almost entirely complete, a level of preservation that “boggles my mind,” says G. Richard Scott, a physical anthropologist at the University of Nevada, Reno. They were interred with antler rods and stone projectile points, which Potter believes were once lashed together to form a spearlike weapon called a hafted biface. “You can even see the whittling marks left on the edges of [the antlers],” which could help reveal how the weapons were made, Potter says. The grave goods were coated in red ochre—a common practice in Paleolithic burials around the world—and radiocarbon dating of one of the antlers shows that they are the earliest known example of the hafted biface technology in North America.Sign up for our daily newsletterGet more great content like this delivered right to you!Country *AfghanistanAland IslandsAlbaniaAlgeriaAndorraAngolaAnguillaAntarcticaAntigua and BarbudaArgentinaArmeniaArubaAustraliaAustriaAzerbaijanBahamasBahrainBangladeshBarbadosBelarusBelgiumBelizeBeninBermudaBhutanBolivia, Plurinational State ofBonaire, Sint Eustatius and SabaBosnia and HerzegovinaBotswanaBouvet IslandBrazilBritish Indian Ocean TerritoryBrunei DarussalamBulgariaBurkina FasoBurundiCambodiaCameroonCanadaCape VerdeCayman IslandsCentral African RepublicChadChileChinaChristmas IslandCocos (Keeling) IslandsColombiaComorosCongoCongo, The Democratic Republic of theCook IslandsCosta RicaCote D’IvoireCroatiaCubaCuraçaoCyprusCzech RepublicDenmarkDjiboutiDominicaDominican RepublicEcuadorEgyptEl SalvadorEquatorial GuineaEritreaEstoniaEthiopiaFalkland Islands (Malvinas)Faroe IslandsFijiFinlandFranceFrench GuianaFrench PolynesiaFrench Southern TerritoriesGabonGambiaGeorgiaGermanyGhanaGibraltarGreeceGreenlandGrenadaGuadeloupeGuatemalaGuernseyGuineaGuinea-BissauGuyanaHaitiHeard Island and Mcdonald IslandsHoly See (Vatican City State)HondurasHong KongHungaryIcelandIndiaIndonesiaIran, Islamic Republic ofIraqIrelandIsle of ManIsraelItalyJamaicaJapanJerseyJordanKazakhstanKenyaKiribatiKorea, Democratic People’s Republic ofKorea, Republic ofKuwaitKyrgyzstanLao People’s Democratic RepublicLatviaLebanonLesothoLiberiaLibyan Arab JamahiriyaLiechtensteinLithuaniaLuxembourgMacaoMacedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic ofMadagascarMalawiMalaysiaMaldivesMaliMaltaMartiniqueMauritaniaMauritiusMayotteMexicoMoldova, Republic ofMonacoMongoliaMontenegroMontserratMoroccoMozambiqueMyanmarNamibiaNauruNepalNetherlandsNew CaledoniaNew ZealandNicaraguaNigerNigeriaNiueNorfolk IslandNorwayOmanPakistanPalestinianPanamaPapua New GuineaParaguayPeruPhilippinesPitcairnPolandPortugalQatarReunionRomaniaRussian FederationRWANDASaint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da CunhaSaint Kitts and NevisSaint LuciaSaint Martin (French part)Saint Pierre and MiquelonSaint Vincent and the GrenadinesSamoaSan MarinoSao Tome and PrincipeSaudi ArabiaSenegalSerbiaSeychellesSierra LeoneSingaporeSint Maarten (Dutch part)SlovakiaSloveniaSolomon IslandsSomaliaSouth AfricaSouth Georgia and the South Sandwich IslandsSouth SudanSpainSri LankaSudanSurinameSvalbard and Jan MayenSwazilandSwedenSwitzerlandSyrian Arab RepublicTaiwanTajikistanTanzania, United Republic ofThailandTimor-LesteTogoTokelauTongaTrinidad and TobagoTunisiaTurkeyTurkmenistanTurks and Caicos IslandsTuvaluUgandaUkraineUnited Arab EmiratesUnited KingdomUnited StatesUruguayUzbekistanVanuatuVenezuela, Bolivarian Republic ofVietnamVirgin Islands, BritishWallis and FutunaWestern SaharaYemenZambiaZimbabweI also wish to receive emails from AAAS/Science and Science advertisers, including information on products, services and special offers which may include but are not limited to news, careers information & upcoming events.Required fields are included by an asterisk(*)Because the burial and the later cremation are the only two examples of mortuary practices in Paleolithic Alaska, it’s all but impossible to be sure why two bodies were buried and one was burned, Potter says. The salmon found throughout the hearth is a food source available only in the summer, which indicates that the burials and the cremation likely occurred during the same season or in two subsequent years. One speculation from Potter’s team is that the buried children were twins. According to this hypothesis, one fetus died in the womb shortly before birth, which is known to boost the risk of premature birth, developmental problems, and death of the surviving twin. The other infant survived birth but died a few weeks or months later, and the bodies were interred together. The cremated child likely died later in the season or the following year and was burned in the hearth before the community abandoned the site.The only way to settle the question of how the children are related to each other—as well as to other Paleoindian groups and living people—is to analyze their DNA, Potter says. “The most exciting thing is going to be the genetics,” Hoffecker says. “There’s still a question here as to exactly who these people are at Upward Sun River.”Anthropologists debate how many groups of people were present in Beringia at different times and where each of them may have come from. Potter notes that burials of children within residential structures have also been documented in Ushki, a site in eastern Siberia, so the practice could link communities on either side of the Bering Strait. Hoffecker points out that the biface stone points are very similar to those found at the Anzick site in Montana. “If it’s possible to successfully analyze the DNA [from the burials], it could open the door to all kinds of new insights into the colonization of the New World,” Hare agrees. Potter says ancient DNA analysis is already under way, with cooperation from the tribes living in the Upward Sun River area today.last_img read more